National MDG Targets and Indicators
For each of the eight Millennium Development Goals there are a number of national indicators adjusted to address specific Georgian needs:
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
National Goal: Eradicate extreme poverty
- Halve the proportion of people living below the poverty line.
- Halve the proportion of people that have unbalanced diets.
- Ensure socio-economic rehabilitation and civil integration of population affected and displaced as a result of conflicts and natural calamities.
Georgia has enjoyed impressive economic growth largely due to a wide range of reforms. However, desite the growth, poverty has decreased only slightly, and both the incdence and severity of poverty remain of great concern to the Government.
Positive trends in poverty reduction and economic development were reversed by the war with Russia in August 2008 and the world economic crisis. These negative trends are slowly improving since 2010.
According to the national statistics agency Geostat, population rate under poverty line (%) was increased from 6.4% in 2007 to 9.9% in 2009 and then has slightly decreased to 9,7% in 2010.
Through its Economic Development programme, UNDP continues to assist the government of Georgia in developing new strategies for promoting sustainable economic growth, and in planning and implementing economic reforms. The programme focuses especially on encouraging private sector development in the country, promoting professional education and on assisting local development.
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
National Goal: Ensure coherence of Georgian education systems with educational systems of developed countries through improved quality and institutional set-up
- Maintain universal primary education; ensure the transformation of school education into 12 year cycle; inclusion into the International Systems of School Education Quality Assessment; achievement of institutional coherence with modern school education systems.
- Ensure establishment of accreditation system for tertiary education institutions; achievement of institutional coherence with modern tertiary education systems.
- Ensure the transformation of vocational education into the one focused on labour market needs; facilitate the establishment of institutional support to private sector development in vocational education.
- Ensure the function of inclusive and integrated educational programmes; incorporate the principles of inclusive education into national study programmes.
The ongoing reform process in the education sector is focused on improving the quality of education and ensuring accessible and affordable education at different levels. Georgia joined Bologna process at Bergen Summit in 2005.
In 2005-2006, the Ministry of Education and Science of Georgia issued a number of decrees facilitating the introduction of the Bologna principles in the higher education system of Georgia. The amendments to the Law on Higher Education were also introduced in 2006 to make it more compatible with the requirements of the Bologna Process.
Georgia is now striving to fully reform its system of professional education and vocational training. In 2006, when the Government came up with the reform strategy, hardly 10% of the professional education centres in the country managed to operate, and even those could not meet standards in curricula, training modules, infrastructure and equipment. In 2007, the government identified employment and the reduction of poverty as its top priorities. This message became even stronger in 2008 when the armed conflict with Russia and the global economic crisis hampered economic development of the country, destroyed livelihoods, and left many people across Georgia jobless.
Through its Economic Development programme, UNDP helps Georgia implement systemic reform of professional education and build a standards-based qualifications and training system that responds to the needs of the local labour market. UNDP assists the national Ministry of Education and Science in formulating a comprehensive strategy, introducing educational standards, and refurbishing and equipping training sites. UNDP also assists in developing new curricula and manuals, re-training teachers, and in launching new training programmes.
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
National Goal: Promote gender equality and empower women
- Ensure gender equality in employment.
- Ensure equal access to activity in the political domain and all levels of management.
The Parliamentary Council on Gender Equality Issues, which was established in December 2004 and is now chaired by Ms. Rusudan Kervalishvili, Vice-Speaker of the Parliament of Georgia, proved to be an effective mechanism, especially for gender sensitive law-making.
In May 2006, the Parliament adopted the Law of Georgia on Elimination of Domestic Violence, Protection of Victims of Domestic Violence and Their Assistance.
Every two-years the Government elaborates the Plan of Action on Combating and Prevention of Instances of Domestic Violence. The Inter-Agency Coordination Council on the Measures to Eliminate Domestic Violence together with the State Fund on Protection and Assistance of Victims of Human Trafficking and Domestic Violence is responsible for the implementation of the Plan and of the law respectively.
Also in 2006, the Government adopted the Law of Georgia on Struggle against Human Trafficking. The measures aimed at combating trafficking in human beings are coordinated by the Inter-Agency Coordination Council on Trafficking in Human Beings.
The Council has successfully elaborated and lobbied for the adoption of the Gender Equality Law of Georgia in March 2010 that grants it status of a standing body responsible for overall national coordination and monitoring of gender equality policies and laws.
There were two positive developments in December 2011: (1) The adoption of the National Action Plan on Women, Peace and Security and, (2) The adoption by the Parliament of an amendment to the Election Code – now all the parties that take part in elections will receive 10% increase in their state funding if they have overcome the 5% electoral barrier and if they have 20% candidates of different sex among each ten candidates (i.e. 2 out of each 10).
Goal 4: Reduce child mortality
Natioanl Goal: Reduce child mortality
- Reduce by two-thirds, by 2015, the under-five mortality rate.
The ongoing reform in Georgia’s health sector includes the rehabilitation of primary and hospital facilities, introduction of new equipment and technologies, establishment of guidelines and protocols, expansion of state funding for children programmes, and the increase of access to high quality medical services.
This has determined a stable trend of decreasing under-5 child mortality in Georgia from 19.4 in 2005 to 13.4 in 2010 and infant mortality rate from 18.1 in 2005 to 12 in 2010. (Ministry of Labour, Health, and Social Affairs data).
Goal 5: Improve maternal health
National Goal: Improve maternal health
- Reduce by three-quarters the maternal mortality ratio.
The increased state funding of maternal programmes and improved access to affordable high quality medical services has played the crucial role in the steady decrease of maternal mortality (MMR) in Georgia from 23.4 in 2005 to 19.4 in 2010. Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel was increased from 98.5 in 2005 to 99.6 in 2010. (Ministry of Labour, Health, and Social Affairs data).
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
National Goal: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
- Have halted and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS.
- Have halted and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.
The number of new HIV infections is steadily increasing even though Georgia remains a low prevalence country. According to the National AIDS Centre, there were 3,080 (2,268 males and 812 females) registered HIV cases as of December 2011. 680 persons died by 2011 as a result of AIDS. The majority of infected people are injecting drug users (55.6%); 37.5% have been infected through heterosexual contacts; 3.4% - through homosexual contacts; in 2.2% of cases virus was transmitted from mother to child and 0.9% is undetermined.
New cases of malaria have sharply declined in Georgia from 58 in 2005 to 1 in 2008 and 0 in 2009 and 2010.
Goal 7: Ensure environmental stability
National Goal: Ensure environmental stability
- Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources.
- Halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water.
- Harmonization of the housing sector with international standards, including the development of municipal (social) tenure component.
The government of Georgia adopted the strategy and action plan on biodiversity preservation with Resolution #27 of February 19, 2004. The strategy covers the preservation of biodiversity for the period of 10 years, while the action plan is designed for a five-year term. The elaboration of forestry policy and strategy started in 2005.
Despite its rich water deposits, Georgia is still experiencing difficulties in supplying the population with safe drinking water in rural areas. The underground water deposits remain the main source of drinking water, providing 90% of the water supply system. Currently 84% of urban and 15.7% of the rural population is centrally supplied with drinking water.
In recent years Georgia has experienced increasingly frequent effects of climate change. The third national communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change will be issued in 2013 and will include the updated greenhouse gas inventory and will discuss the ways of minimizing its emissions in the main cities of Georgia. It will also assist the Government to better analyse Climate Change risks and to develop realistic scenarios for reducing its negative impact.
Under its Environment and Energy programme, UNDP is assisting Georgia in developing strategies and action plans for increasing the national potential to effectively implement the requirements of global conventions on climate change including: biodiversity conservation, the fight against desertification, the elaboration of a national plan on implementation of the Stockholm Convention of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), and Kura-Aras basin preservation and integrated management plan. In cooperation with the Global Environment Facility and the German Bank for Reconstruction (KfW), UNDP also supports the Georgia’s energy sector.
Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development
National Goal: Develop a global partnership for development
- Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system.
- Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of Georgia through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term.
- Ensure improved accessibility to communication systems countrywide, minimize digital inequality between urban and rural areas.
Georgia has a rather liberal trade regime. The country’s legislation does not apply any quantitative restrictions, restrictions of licensing requirements or other nontariff barriers.
After joining the World Trade Organization (WTO) in June 2000, Georgia started to harmonize its customs regimes with the commitments negotiated with the WTO. Georgia’s joining the WTO resulted in the abolishment of the Jackson-Vanik Amendment by the USA and, furthermore, granted the country Most Favoured Nation status. Later, the country was granted the General System of Preferences (GSP) beneficiary status.